Next to internal linguistic evidence, the reconstruction of a prehistoric homeland makes use of a variety of disciplines, including archaeology and archaeogenetics. The Seljuk Turks from the 11th century invaded Anatolia, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement there and the establishment of the nation of Turkey.". Afroasiatic (alternatively Afro-Asiatic), also known as Hamito-Semitic, is a large language family, including about 375 living languages.. Afroasiatic languages are spoken predominantly in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel. Geneva June 10–13, 2004. Vovin, Alexander: Koreo-Japonica. (The published results from a major project of the Institute of African and Asian Studies: the Language Survey of the Nuba Mountains.). More than 300 million people speak an Afroasiatic language. An estimate for the time-depth of the proto-language is necessary in order to account for prehistorical changes in climate and the distribution of flora and fauna. Jubainville, H. D'Arbois de (1889, 1894). A 2005 proposal by Holst, also reiterating a proposal of Swadesh from 1962, suggests that the Wakashan languages (map on right) spoken in British Columbia around and on Vancouver Island, are part of the same linguistic family as the Eskimo-Aleut languages. Linguistic guesstimates or phylogenetic speculation date the proto-language (and thus the homeland) within a wide range, from 15,000 to 6,000 years ago. Laurent Sagart, on the other hand, holds that Tai–Kadai is a branch of Austronesian which migrated back to the mainland from northeastern Formosa (i.e. Malcolm Guthrie and the reconstruction of Bantu prehistory.  Where Bantu was adopted via language shift of existing populations, prior African languages were spoken, probably from African language families that are now lost, except as substrate influences of local Bantu languages (such as click sounds in local Bantu languages). , For example, the languages of the New World are believed to be descended from a relatively "rapid" peopling of the Americas (relative to the duration of the Upper Paleolithic) within a few millennia (roughly between 20,000 and 15,000 years ago), but their genetic relationship has become completely obscured over the more than ten millennia which have passed between their separation and their first written record in the early modern period. The time and place of the Urheimats of various language family proto-languages spoken by most people alive today is in many cases much more recent than either the Out of Africa date or the origin of farming and herding. Michael Fortescue in 1998 proposed a group of Uralo-Siberian languages, in which Uralic languages like Finnish were related to Eskimo-Aleut languages supported by lexical correspondences and grammatical similarities, expanding upon a proposal of Morris Swadesh in 1962 that itself reiterates similarities that have been noted since at least 1746. Michael Fortescue, a specialist in Eskimo–Aleut as well as in Chukotko-Kamchatkan, argues for a link between Uralic, Yukaghir, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, and Eskimo–Aleut in Language Relations Across Bering Strait (1998). For example, the domestication of horses is frequently associated with the expansion of the Indo-European language family (other linguists see an earlier expansion date which they attribute to the expansion to farming and herding), the expansion of the Chinese language is sometimes associated first with millet and later with rice farming, and the development of crops and domesticated animals that can thrive in tropical environments may have been one factor in Bantu expansion. Generally speaking, two proposals have been developed: that Afro-Asiatic arose in a Semitic Urheimat in the Middle East aka Southwest Asia, or that Afro-Asiatic languages arose in northeast Africa (generally, either between Darfur and Tibesti or in Ethiopia and the other countries of the Horn of Africa).  Joseph Greenberg continued that tradition making it the starting point for modern linguistic classification in Africa, with some of his most notable publications going to press starting in the 1960s.  This is consistent with the mainstream view, supported by population genetics and archaeology, that Papua New Guinea and Australia, as well as some of the islands neighboring Papua New Guinea, were first inhabited by hominins (humans or otherwise) at least 40,000 years ago in migrations that were either separate or swiftly segregated, and that many of these populations have had only limited contact with outside populations until the modern era. In: Philip Baldi (ed. There is a consensus that the Tai–Kadai languages have their origins in Southern China or on major nearby islands (such as Taiwan or Hainan). The limited area of the Afro-Asiatic Sprachraum (prior to its expansion to new areas in the historic era) has limited the potential areas where that family's Urheimat could be. Supporters of a non-North or north East African origin for Afroasiatic are particularly common among those with a background in Semitic or Egyptological studies, or amongst archaeological proponents of the "farming/language dispersal hypothesis" according to which major language groups dispersed with early farming technology in the Neolithic. Attempts to localize the proto-Turkic Urheimat are usually connected with the early archaeological horizon of west and central Siberia and in the region south of it.. West Africa or Central Africa) and probably predated the Bantu expansion of ca. Linguistica Online, 30 January 2006. Google AdSense Guest Advertisement. Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of the Niger Delta. The other alternative, that all the other Indo-Europeans left Anatolia, leaving a population behind, does not account for the presence of a Hattic interface in Anatolian, but in none of the others. words attributable to the original Yayoi language) make up 33.8% of the Japanese lexicon, that "kango" (i.e. Epub 2009 Aug 25.  No definitive "Proto-Niger–Congo" lexicon or grammar has been developed for the language family as a whole. The Iranian languages split into Eastern and Western branches in what are known as the Middle Iranian languages around the 4th century BCE. Multidimensional scaling and ADMIXTURE across Northern Eurasia corresponds to geography and language. The Hague: Mouton. Spiegel.de. Urheimat. These languages were then suppressed and while they have about a million native speakers, there are relatively few native speakers under the age of twenty. Benedict, Paul K. (1942). Les Premiers Habitants de l'Europe d'après les Écrivains de l'Antiquité et les Travaux des Linguistes: Seconde Édition. 2000 BCE). Ancient DNA evidence suggests that the ancestors of the speakers of the Hmong–Mien languages were a population genetically distinct from that of the Tai–Kadai and Austronesian language source populations at a location on the Yangtze River. In contrast, four of the other main language families of East Asia and Southeast Asia outside the Sino-Tibetan language family, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Hmong–Mien and Tai–Kadai, are generally believed to have at origins at some stage of their development in Southern China. That is, they have no well accepted linguistic family connection, no nodes in a family tree, and therefore no known Urheimat. The Benue–Congo languages and Ijo. Jane H. Hill, "Proto-Uto-Aztecan", American Anthropologist, 2001.  For example, a creole language may lack significant inflectional morphology, lack tone on monosyllabic words, or lack semantically opaque word formation, even if these features are found in all of the parent languages of the languages from which the creole was formed.. It is, however, a widely held hypothesis that Dravidian speakers may have been more widespread throughout India, including the northwest region, before the arrival of Indo-European speakers.  No definitive "Proto-Niger–Congo" lexicon or grammar has been developed for the language family as a whole. Geschichte und Gesellschaft, Wien 2006, p. 61, Jared Diamond, "Guns, Germs and Steel" (2000). There has been speculation regarding the specific Semitic subfamily of Afro-Asiatic languages, again with the Horn of Africa and Southwest Asia—specifically the Levant—being the most common proposals. Mesoamerica was home to one of the most developed succession of farming societies in the Americas in the pre-Columbian era. Semitic (and by implication also the Chadic, Kushitic and Hamitic branches of the Afro-Asiatic family, assumed to be the result of a pre-4th-millennium immigration of early agriculturists from West Asia into North Africa) is suspected to spring from a common ancestor with IE, even by scholars skeptical of Nostratic adventures. 1995. 1989. Alagoa, F.N. Carr. The Maltese language, the only other Semitic language of Europe, is a derivative of the Arabic language as it was spoken in Sicily starting sometime after the rise of the Islamic empire in North Africa. The prehistoric range for the Niger–Congo languages has implications, not just for the history of the Niger–Congo languages, but for the origins of the Afro-Asiatic languages and Nilo-Saharan languages whose homelands have been hypothesized by some to overlap with the Niger–Congo linguistic range prior to recorded history. The terminology is now largely obsolete outside the grouping "Semitic languages" in linguistics. That same Hattic interface suggests that Anatolia was not entirely the place where Proto-Anatolian formed, but rather the latter encountered the substrate on entering Anatolia and adjusted itself accordingly. M. (1986). Map of Semitic languages and statistically inferred dispersals. 13. bis 20. First proposed in the early 20th century, the Nostratic theory still receives serious consideration, but it is by no means generally accepted. As noted below, many notable linguists have proposed that the Eskimo-Aleut languages and Uralic languages have a common origin, although there is no consensus that this connection is genuine. This is adjacent to the proposed homeland for Proto-Indo-European under the Kurgan hypothesis. Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term meaning the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. Encyclopædia Britannica. Since all modern Semitic languages can be traced back to a common ancestor, Semiticists have placed importance upon locating the urheimat of the Proto-Semitic language. 3. when this diversity is wiped out by more recent migrations.. This is a reflection of the fact that the Daasanach, like the Nyangatom, originally spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, with the ancestral Daasanach later adopting an Afroasiatic language around the 19th century. The Uralic homeland is unknown. Two (super-) family proposals, Penutian and Hokan generally along the Pacific coast of North America that are gaining currency among linguists, would reduce the number of language families in North America to about fifteen. 609–610 in Keith Brown (editor in chief), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition. In the latter part of the twentieth century, the link between archaeological cultures and language boundaries was weakened by the discovery of cases in which language shifts occurred with only minor differences in cultural artifacts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. A likely candidate for the homeland of an Italo-Celtic proto-language or dialect continuum is the Urnfield culture and its predecessor, the Tumulus culture of Central Europe (1600 BC). 2008. Generally speaking, two proposals have been developed: that Afro-Asiatic arose in a Semitic Urheimat in the Middle East aka Southwest Asia, or that Afro-Asiatic languages arose in northeast Africa (generally, either between Darfur and Tibesti or in Ethiopia and the other countries of the Horn of Africa). * Reid, LA (2006). The Ainu languages are a barely surviving family of closely related languages or dialects that were spoken by indigenous populations on the island of Hokkaidō in what is now northern Japan as well as on the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Archipelago in what is now the Russian Far East at the time of the oldest extant historical records concerning those islands. The origin of Semitic and the nature of dispersals by Semitic-speaking populations are of great importance to our understanding of the ancient history of… Central Asia and Non-Chinese Peoples of Ancient China (Collected Studies, 731). Japanese language family languages are spoken in Japan and among emigrants from Japan and is attested in Japanese language writing from the 8th century CE, and in imperfect Chinese transcriptions from the late 5th century CE. Bowern, Claire; Atkinson, Quentin (2012). José Ignacio Hualde, Joseba Lakarra, Robert Lawrence Trask (1995), Towards a history of the Basque language, p. 81. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. Canberra, Australia. (The published results from a major project of the Institute of African and Asian Studies: the Language Survey of the Nuba Mountains.). Linguistic evidence regarding Bantu origins. The concept of an Urheimat only applies to populations speaking a proto-language defined by the tree model. Sagart suggests that Austro-Tai is ultimately related to the Sino-Tibetan languages and has its origin in the Neolithic communities of the coastal regions of prehistoric North China or East China. There is no consensus regarding the location of the Proto-Semitic Urheimat; scholars hypothesize that it may have originated in the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, the Sahara, or the Horn of Africa. "Tai–Kadai and Austronesian: the nature of the relationship." Morris Swadesh, "Linguistic relations across the Bering Strait". The origin of Turkic languages is disputed, both in connection with other language families and in time and place. For example, the Urheimats in which the proto-languages of the subfamilies are the Indo-European language family necessarily arose more recently than the Proto-Indo-European language family. Robert Blust (1999) suggests that proto-Tai–Kadai speakers originated in the northern Philippines and migrated from there to Hainan (hence the diversity of Tai–Kadai languages on that island), and were radically restructured following contact with Hmong–Mien and Sinitic. " He defines the language phases between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Anatolian as Pre-Anatolian.  This account attributes only a small number of words in modern Japanese to Ainu roots. The language of the Scythian people of Central Asia, whose interactions with the Greeks in 512 BCE were attested by Herodotus ca. Current Biology, Volume 20, Issue 4, R162–R165, 23 February 2010. Leiden: Brill. While there are plausible reasons to infer that the Melanesian languages and the aboriginal Australian languages, respectively, have common origins in a small founding population with a single language, the linguists have not been able to marshal lexical, phonetic and grammatical evidence from these languages in their current form to support these inferences. Population genetic evidence suggests that the non-circumpolar indigenous peoples of the Americas have origins in a small common founder population in the Upper Paleolithic era that arrived via a Berginian land bridge from Asia. Bengtson and Ruhlen (1994) offered a list of 27 "global etymologies". 1. Let me first take up one of the characteristics of South Semitic--the geminated imperfect. Other language replacement events are lost to history and must be inferred. Afro-Asiatic languages, also called Afrasian languages, formerly Hamito-Semitic, Semito-Hamitic, or Erythraean languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia. Roger Blench, relying particularly on prior work by Professor Kay Williamson of the University of Port Harcourt, and the linguist P. De Wolf, who each took the same position, has argued that a Benue–Congo linguistic subfamily of the Niger–Congo language family, which includes the Bantu languages and other related languages and would be the largest branch of Niger–Congo, is an empirically supported grouping which probably originated at the confluence of the Benue and Niger Rivers in Central Nigeria. Shafer, R. (1965). The archaeological cultures in South Asia described as Black and Red Ware (10th century BCE) and the later Painted Gray Ware (starting ca. Roger Blench, "Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?," Paper for the Symposium "Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence". Williamson, K. 1988. "Dravidian languages." Sometimes relatives are found for a language originally believed to be an isolate.  In other places, Bantu language expansion, like many other languages, has been documented with population genetic evidence to have occurred by means other than complete or predominant population replacement (e.g. 30 Jun. This family of languages is sometimes described as Paleosiberian, a classification that rests on a belief that it represents a stratum of Siberian populations that preceded the speakers of the other modern languages of Siberia (mostly of the Indo-European and Altaic language families), possibly one that dates back to the Paleolithic era when North America was initially populated. "Thai, Kadai and Indonesian: a new alignment in south east Asia." The relatively young time depth of modern language families can arise from at least two factors: prior languages went extinct as other languages expanded, and some language families may have deeper connections at a greater time depth. None of these efforts has achieved wide support among linguists, although some have been viewed as sufficiently credible to receive serious consideration from multiple linguists.. The Urheimaten reconstructed using the methods of comparative linguistics typically estimate separation times dating to the Neolithic or later. ", http://www.svabhinava.org/AITvsOIT/Sergent-AfroDravidian-frame.php, http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v19/n2/full/ejhg2010153a.html, http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2010/10/admixture-across-eurasia-from-anatolia.html, http://web.archive.org/web/20090526221250/http://www.uaf.edu/anlc/dy2008.html, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/18/7/1189#T4, http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/Kordofanian/Kordofanian%20and%20Niger-Congo.pdf, http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2011/08/tutsi-differ-genetically-from-the-hutu/#more-13708, http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2011/08/tutsi-genetics-ii/, http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Niger-Congo/Benue-Congo/General/Benue-Congo%20classification%20latest.pdf, http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1000448, "The origins of the Lemba "Black Jews" of southern Africa: evidence from p12F2 and other Y-chromosome markers. 1000 CE, further supports a proto-Eskimo-Aleut arrival in the polar regions of North America ca. Archaeological evidence is sometimes adduced to support the existence of an urheimat. Isidore Dyen's proposal for New Guinea as the center of dispersal of the Austronesian languages). Map showing one of the proposed Afroasiatic Urheimat (Eastern Sahara theory.) He calls this proposed grouping Uralo-Siberian. A proposed new classification of Benue–Congo languages. There was a group of similar languages called the Buyeo languages in the northern Korean Peninsula and southern Manchuria and possibly Japan, which included, according to Chinese records, the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, Dongye, Okjeo, —and possibly Gojoseon, but was different from ancient Manchu languages like Mohe language.  Malagasy shares much of its basic vocabulary with the Ma'anyan language, a language from the region of the Barito River in southern Borneo. Note that Argobba, Amharic's closest relative, is in many ways more archaic and sounds less alien to people familiar with Central Semitic languages (Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, etc). The Slavic languages experience a major expansion starting around the 6th century CE, in some cases supplanting earlier Indo-European languages in the region to which they expanded. The limited area of the Afro-Asiatic Sprachraum (prior to its expansion to new areas in the historic era) has limited the potential areas where the that family's Urheimat could be. However, there is more agreement regarding the place of origin of the Benue–Congo subfamily of languages, which is the largest subfamily of the group, and the place of origin of the Bantu languages and the time at which it started to expand is known with great specificity. Journal of Inner and East Asian Studies 2.2, 34-64. Thus, evidence from genetics and archaeology strongly supports an East Asian origin for Eskimo-Aleut languages sometime in the last 1500 years that is distinct from most other indigenous languages of the Americas. 1. The only languages which are predominantly found in Europe, North Asia and South Asia and are not part of the language families above are the Basque language spoken in Northern Spain and Southwestern France, the three living language families of the Caucasus mountains (Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian and South Caucasian, with the first two sometimes proposed as members of a single North Caucasian language family), the Paleosiberian languages (the Yukaghir languages of Central Siberia (viewed by some linguists as a divergent branch of the Uralic languages), and the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages of Eastern Siberia, a grouping which sometimes includes the geographically adjacent Nivkh language, although it is sometimes treated as a language isolate, and Yenesian), and a few South Asian linguistic isolates, such as Burushaski, spoken mostly in isolated pockets of Northern Pakistan, and the two indigenous language families of the Andamanese people (Great Andamanese and Ongan), and perhaps Nihali (spoken in West Central India). His evidence is in the Tai–Kadai sound correspondences, which reflect Austronesian distinctions that were lost in Malayo-Polynesian and even Eastern Formosan. Sagart, Laurent 2005. This general concern is a manifestation of the larger issue of "time depth" in historical linguistics. (1992). Traditionally (50 years ago or so) I think Northeastern Africa / Southern Arabia was somewhat widely viewed as the leading candidate for the general region of the Proto-Semitic Urheimat. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. 2007, 7: 47. Speculations regarding the original homeland have centered on the Indus Valley Civilization or on Elam (whose Elamite language was spoken in the hills to the east of the ancient Sumerian civilization with whom the Indus Valley Civilization traded and shared domesticated species) in an Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis, but results have not been convincing. The classification of the relatively divergent family of Ubangian languages which are centered in the Central African Republic, as part of the Niger–Congo language family where Greenberg classified them in 1963 and subsequently scholars concurred, was called into question, by linguist Gerrit Dimmendaal in a 2008 article.. Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere, Some scholars associate the Cemetery H culture of the Northern Indus River Valley (specifically Western Punjab) ca. 3. 500 CE – 1000 CE.. " Thus, the Bushmen of the Kalahari who occupy the largest geographic region where click languages are spoken are viewed as a relict population far removed from the place where click languages probably originated. Nevertheless, an unknown Urheimat is implied. The Hague: Mouton. Current Trends in Linguistics, 7. ed. 2006. The Uralic homeland is unknown.  Thus, in Parpola's view, the urheimat of Dravidian would be in the Indus River Valley.  The evidence is insufficient to determine if this outlier group of Niger–Congo language speakers represent a prehistoric range of a Niger–Congo linguistic region that has since contracted as other languages have intruded, or if instead, this represents a group of Niger–Congo language speakers who migrated to the area at some point in prehistory where they were an isolated linguistic community from the beginning. See more ideas about historical maps, history, map.  Given enough time, natural change in isolated language can obliterate any meaningful linguistic evidence of a known common genetic source for the languages. "Austroasiatic Languages". "Austro-Tai Hypotheses". Jukagirisch und Uralisch ('Yukaghir and Uralic') 1940.). Japanese/Austro-Tai. See more ideas about Hebrew vocabulary, Hebrew lessons, Biblical hebrew. Lanham: University Press of America. 107–131 in Sagart, Laurent, Blench, Roger & Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia (eds.). But, modern Japanese dialects show a common origin, rather than a "bushy" one. 500 CE – 1000 CE, successively sweep Arctic North America while having little genetic impact on Native American populations further South, that presumably have origins that date back to the initial colonization of the Americas by modern humans from Asia (who are the first hominins to live there), and ancient DNA shows genetic continuity from the Thule to modern Inuit (whose genetics are remarkably homogeneous), dominated by the A2a, A2b, and D3 mtDNA haplotypes, while "Haplotype D2 (3%), found among modern Aleut and Siberian Eskimos, was identified at a low frequency in the modern samples but not the ancient. If the consensus view regarding the origins of the Nilo-Saharan languages which came to East Africa is adopted, and a North African or Southwest Asian origin for Afro-Asiatic languages is assumed, the linguistic affiliation of East Africa prior to the arrival of Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic languages is left open. Ostapirat, by contrast, sees connections with the Austroasiatic languages (in Austric), as has Benedict. There is considerable dispute over the time and place of origin of the Turkic languages, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia and South-Central-Siberia. , According to the Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus project of the University of California at Berkeley, the Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PST) homeland may have been "where the great rivers of East and Southeast Asia (including the Yellow, Yangtze, Mekong, Brahmaputra, Salween, and Irrawaddy) have their source. , There is a strong correlation between the population genetic distribution Y-Chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 and the distribution of Austroasiatic language speakers. Starostin, Sergei A. De Wolf, P. 1971. Dienekes' Anthropology Blog, November 07, 2010.  Reid notes that the two approaches are not incompatible, if Austric is valid and can be connected to Sino-Tibetan.. A single family may be an isolate. Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. One of the best keys to the geographical itinerary of a language is the exchange of lexical and other elements with other languages. Linguistic aspects of the Indo-European Urheimat question 3.4. The noun class system of Proto-Benue–Congo. They were at first hunted and then domesticated on the plains of Asia, not in Anatolia. According to linguist Roger Blench, as of 2004, all specialists in Niger–Congo languages believe the languages to have a common origin, rather than merely constituting a typological classification, for reasons including their shared noun-class system, their shared verbal extensions and their shared basic lexicon. 2005. 2008. Dongye was a vassal state of Goguryeo in Northeast Korea founded in the 3rd-century BCE that was eventually absorbed by Goguryeo around the 5th century CE. A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from at least about 3750 BCE in South West Asia during the Early Bronze Age. The first possibly Turkic peoples to arrive in Europe were the Huns, who were at war with the Roman Empire in the 4th century CE. History in Africa, 7:81–118. The specific origins of most far flung member of this language family, the Malagasy language of Madagascar off the coast of Africa, are described above in the part of this article concerning African languages. "The ethnolinguistic history of the early Korean peninsula region: Japanese-Koguryoic and other languages in the Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla kingdoms." Some of this difficulty in resolving the Afro-Asiatic family tree flows from the time depth of these languages. The noun class system of Proto-Benue–Congo. "Methodological observations on some recent studies of the early ethnolinguistic history of Korea and vicinity." The large number of Semitic languages present in the Horn of Africa seems at first glance to support the hypothesis that the Semitic homeland lies there. The prehistoric range for the Niger–Congo languages has implications, not just for the history of the Niger–Congo languages, but for the origins of the Afro-Asiatic languages and Nilo-Saharan languages whose homelands have been hypothesized by some to overlap with the Niger–Congo linguistic range prior to recorded history. Scientific American 267.5 (November): 94–99. 2009 Nov;73 (Pt 6):582–600. Washington, D.C. 112p. The Khoisan click languages of Africa do not form a language family and so do not, as a family, have a homeland. [Translation of Starostin 1984]. Semites, Semitic peoples or Semitic cultures was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group. The Phrygian influence on [pre-]Proto-Armenian would date to about the 7th century BC, in the context of the declining kingdom of Urartu. Over a sufficient period of time, in the absence of evidence of intermediary steps in the process, it may be impossible to observe linkages between languages that have a shared Urheimat: given enough time, natural language change will obliterate any meaningful linguistic evidence of a common genetic source. Diachronica 4.1/2:159-223. Recent studies of the distribution of alleles on the Y chromosome, microsatellite DNA, and mitochondrial DNA in India have cast doubt for a biological Dravidian "race" distinct from non-Dravidians in the Indian subcontinent; other recent genetic studies have found evidence of Aryan, Dravidian and pre-Dravidian (original Asian) strata in South Asian populations. However, neither of these spoken languages is closely related to the spoken Chinese language, and need not be because ideograms do not code phonetic versions of the ideas that they describe. But there is no linguistic consensus on any particular languages of East Asia with which this family of North American languages is associated.  The evidence is insufficient to determine if this outlier group of Niger–Congo language speakers represent a prehistoric range of a Niger–Congo linguistic region that has since contracted as other languages have intruded, or if instead, this represents a group of Niger–Congo language speakers who migrated to the area at some point in prehistory where they were an isolated linguistic community from the beginning. The Yeniseian language family has been tied by linguist Ed Vajda to the Native American Na-Dene languages of North American (e.g. Pre-La Tène (6th to 5th century BC) Celtic expansions reached Great Britain and Ireland (Insular Celtic) and Gaul. University Hawai'i Press. "Studies in Austroasian II". Chaussonnet, Valerie (1995) Native Cultures of Alaska and Siberia. Confusingly, the Hungarian language is not a Turkic language (it is a Uralic language related to languages like the Finnish language and Estonian language) and was not spoken by the Huns. Greenberg, J.H. Roger Blench, relying particularly on prior work by Professor Kay Williamson of the University of Port Harcourt, and the linguist P. De Wolf, who each took the same position, has argued that a Benue–Congo linguistic subfamily of the Niger–Congo language family, which includes the Bantu languages and other related languages and would be the largest branch of Niger–Congo, is an empirically supported grouping which probably originated at the confluence of the Benue and Congo Rivers in Central Nigeria. There is a widespread consensus among linguistic scholars that Bantu languages of the Niger–Congo family have a homeland near the coastal boundary of Nigeria and Cameroon, prior to a rapid expansion from that homeland starting about 3000 BCE.. Wurm noted that the lexical similarities "are quite striking and amount to virtual formal identity [...] in a number of instances." 1972. Hebrew is relatively closely related to the Arabic language even within the Semitic language family, being part of the same Central Semitic group. Geneva, June 10–13. Proto-linguistic markings used in trade are only a few thousand years older. Dixon, R. M. W. 2002. Genetic studies of Nilo-Saharan-speaking populations are in general agreement with archaeological evidence and linguistic studies that argue for a Nilo-Saharan homeland in eastern Sudan before 6000 BCE, with subsequent migration events northward to the eastern Sahara, westward to the Chad Basin, and southeastward into Kenya and Tanzania.. The Afroasiatic Urheimat is the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages. Part 2: Vocabulary', in Altaica Budapestinensia MMII, Proceedings of the 45th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Budapest, June 23–28, pp. Dravidian Languages. Those who migrated north to the Levant and North Africa developed into Semitic languages and those that migrated southeast to the Horn of Africa developed into proto-Cushitic, and those that migrated southwest developed into the ancestor of languages like Hausa. Proto-Armenian may also be Balkans (Greco-Phrygian) derived, or at least strongly influenced by a Phrygian substrate. Discover 19 (6). The subgrouping of Arabic is still debated , as this language shares features in common with both Northwest Semitic and South ... Thread: Proto-Semitic urheimat in the Levant. McWhorter, J. H. (1998), "Identifying the Creole Prototype: Vindicating a Typological Class". The Khoe languages, Tuu languages, Kx'a languages, Hadza language and Sandawe language (the latter two being Tanzanian language isolates) are frequently grouped together in the catch all Khoisan categorization, despite the lack of a definitive recent common origin of these languages in a common language family.  Migration of people speaking these languages from South China to Southeast Asia took place ca. The Ainu people are genetic descendants of the Jōmon, with some contribution from the Okhotsk people. Candidates for the first introduction of Proto-Italic speakers to Italy are the Terramare culture (1500 BC) or the Villanovan culture (1100 BC), although the latter is now usually identified with the non-Italic (indeed, non-Indo-European) Etruscan civilisation. The leading hypothesis is that the likely homeland of proto-Tai–Kadai was coastal Fujian or Guangdong as part of the neolithic Longshan culture (of 3000 BCE – 2000 BCE). An example is the Basque language of Northern Spain and south west France. The great linguistic diversity of these regions that presumably had at most one or two languages when first settled by modern humans, given the founding population sizes for them implied by population genetic evidence, reinforces the impossibility of making any meaningful statements about the nature of a proto-language at a time depth of tens of thousands of years. Greenberg, J.H. 2006. Two types of language contact should be distinguished. The term Semite is used to denote an ancient set of people who spoke a Semitic language and has roots in the ancestral culture thereof. Semitic, Dravidian and Uralic. Razib Khan, based on analysis of the autosomal genetics of the Tutsi ethnic group of Africa, suggests that "the Tutsi were in all likelihood once a Nilotic speaking population, who switched to the language of the Bantus amongst whom they settled. However, limited genetic evidence from some Khoisan-language speakers in southern Africa suggest an origin "along the African rift and a possible wider East African range. This general concern is a manifestation of the larger issue of "time depth" in historical linguistics. This culture history theory, developed by Gustaf Kossinna, formalized the presumption that unified ethnicities, such as peoples or tribes, could be associated with archaeological cultures. Trask, R.L. In the hey days of racist scholarship when it was considered erudite to routinely erase the role of Africa in the development of world history, it used to be considered with arrogant irrationality that the most probable Proto-Semitic language was Urheimat, which probably developed in the Arabian peninsula. (1972) 'Kongo-Saharan'. Williamson, K. 1988. . editors (1999). The naïve expectation from population genetics would have been that there would be less linguistic diversity, because the entire indigenous population of South America appears to derive genetically from only a subset of an already small indigenous founder population of the Americas as a whole, something illustrated, for example, by its lack several of the less common genetic haplotypes found in indigenous America outside South America (although genetic diversity has accumulated in these populations over time through mutations distinguishing these populations from the founder population genomes). One method is based on the vocabulary that can be reconstructed for the proto-language. Vovin, Alexander (1993). Burrow, T. (1944), "Dravidian Studies IV: The Body in Dravidian and Uralian", Zvelebil, Kamal (2006). Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (2002). For example, in places where language families meet, the relationship between a group that speaks a language and the Urheimat for that language is complicated by "processes of migration, language shift and group absorption are documented by linguists and ethnographers" in groups that are themselves "transient and plastic."  The linguistic migration theory has its limits because it only works when linguistic diversity evolves continuously without major disruptions. The Balto-Slavic homeland largely corresponds to the historical distribution of Baltic and Slavic. The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where Proto-Afroasiatic speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. Chinese historical records mention the existence of the Yayoi (called "Wa") starting in 57 BCE. This is about three times as much linguistic diversity at the language family/language isolate level as North America and Mesoamerica combined. African languages: an introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Exchanges with Other Language Families 3.4.1. Jahrhundert. The Slavic homeland likely corresponds to the distribution of the oldest recognisably Slavic hydronyms, found in northern and western Ukraine and southern Belarus. One might point to a culture map and hazard a guess as to which language, typically a proto-language, was spoken in each culture. Römer, Claudia. Afroasiatic languages have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo). The same authors dated Proto-Indo-European at 8.4ky, in agreement with the work of Gray and Atkinson.In the current paper they re-analyze the data of Kitchen et al. Vansina, J.T. The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where Proto-Afroasiatic speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. You say Semitic languages got to the Middle East first, but that isn't necessarily clear. Rodrigues, Aryon Dall'Igna, and Ana Suelly Arruda Câmara Cabral (2012). The Turkic peoples originated in "the Far East including North China, especially Xinjiang Province and Inner Mongolia with parts of Mongolia and Siberia possibly as far west as Lake Baikal and the Altai Mountains. On the Hypothesis of a Genetic Connection Between the Sino-Tibetan Languages and the Yeniseian and North Caucasian Languages. In the case of the non-Austronesian indigenous languages of Papua New Guinea and the indigneous languages of Australia, there is no published linguistic hypothesis supported by any evidence that these languages have links to any other families. There is considerable dispute over the time and place of origin of the Turkic languages, but it is undisputed that their origins are not in or near the countries named after the language group, Turkey, a.k.a. Blench, R.M. The Turkic languages are now spoken in Turkey, Iran, Central Asia and Siberia. "Current progress in Altaic etymology." 411–440. 1900 BCE with the original Indo-Aryan population of South Asia. Pp. Current ancient and modern DNA scholarship and archaeology supports a three-layer paradigm in which first the Saqqaq (Arctic Paleo-Eskimos) which was present 2000 BCE, then the Dorset (second wave Arctic Paleo-Eskimos), and finally the Thule (proto-Inuit) from ca. Current estimates are that "wago" (i.e. Binbin Wang et al., On the Origin of Tibetans and Their Genetic Basis in Adapting High-Altitude Environments. Oct 26, 2020 - Explore Tiberius Julius Antiochus Epip's board "Urheimat" on Pinterest. Many hypotheses for an Urheimat have been proposed. Thomas T.Allsen – Culture and conquest in Mongol Eurasia. The overlap between the potential areas of origin for these languages in East Africa is particularly notable because includes the regions from which the Proto-Eurasians who brought anatomically modern humans Out of Africa, and presumably their original proto-language or languages originated. This is adjacent to the proposed homeland for Proto-Indo-European under the Kurgan hypothesis. None of these Buyeo language family kingdoms ever included the Kingdom of Silla, which was just a small kingdom on the Southern coast of Korea until the Three Kingdoms period during which it expanded and conquered the other two kingdoms. Africa-to-Levant hypothesis. McWhorter, John H. (1999), "The Afrogenesis Hypothesis of Plantation Creole Origin", in Huber, Magnus; Mikael, Poloni ES, Naciri Y, Bucho R, Niba R, Kervaire B, Excoffier L, Langaney A, Sanchez-Mazas A., "Genetic evidence for complexity in ethnic differentiation and history in East Africa," Ann Hum Genet. Its results can be distorted e.g. Lanham: University Press of America. 900 BCE) and subsequently the Northern Black Polished Ware (ca. The more recent and more speculative ""Borean" hypothesis attempts to unite Nostratic with Dené–Caucasian and Austric, in a "mega-phylum" that would unite most languages of Eurasia, with a time depth going back to the Last Glacial Maximum. "A Brief history of Chinese civilization: second edition" Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, pp. This haplotype was recently identified in an ancient Paleo-Eskimo Saqqaq individual from western Greenland. Williamson, K. 1971. Sagart, L. 2004. Proto-Baltic likely emerging in the eastern parts of the Corded Ware horizon. Africa-to-Levant hypothesis. Schirokauer & Brown 2006. There is also no one genetic profile that is uniform among Afro-Asiatic language speakers that clearly unites them.  Fortescue argues that the Uralo-Siberian proto-language (or a complex of related proto-languages) may have been spoken by Mesolithic hunting and fishing people in south-central Siberia (roughly, from the upper Yenisei river to Lake Baikal) between 8000 and 6000 BC, and that the proto-languages of the derived families may have been carried northward out of this homeland in several successive waves down to about 4000 BC, leaving the Samoyedic branch of Uralic in occupation of the Urheimat thereafter. It will probably never be possible to know with any great confidence what the linguistic landscape of the world looked like 18,000 years ago, and even determining what the linguistic landscape of the world looked like 8,000 years ago is a profound challenge and highly controversial undertaking. In The Niger–Congo Languages. Caucasian and Sino-Tibetan: A Hypothesis of S. A. Starostin. Then, the Seljuk Turks from the 11th century invaded Anatolia, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement there and the establishment of the Turkish nation. After Turkic migration, by the 10th century CE, most of Central Asia, formerly dominated by Iranian peoples, was settled by Turkic tribes. Williamson, K. 1989. 700–559 BC). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Austro-Thai language and culture, with a glossary of roots. INTRODUCTION. (2002). The core three populations in the Altaic classification show autosomal population genetic commonalities. Kumar, Vikrant et al, Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austroasiatic populations, BMC Evol Biol. Messages: 53,966. Lanham: University Press of America.  But, there has been active debate for many decades over the appropriate subclassifications of the languages in that language family, which is a key tool used in localizing a language's place of origin. In the case of the non-Austronesian indigenous languages of Papua New Guinea and the indigenous languages of Australia, there is no published linguistic hypothesis supported by any evidence that these languages have links to any other families. Indo-European culture featured horses. Martínez-Cruz, Begoña. Analyzing Genetic Connections between Languages by Matching Consonant Classes, Blažek, Václav. The expansion of particular major language families is frequently associated with the adoption of superior food production, military technologies or social organization by a particular group of people that allowed them to expand and exert dominance over neighborhoring societies, either ruling them or replacing them. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the prevailing belief was that languages could be reliably associated with archaeological cultures. 2006-08-25. This is suggested by the high language diversity around the middle Volga River, where three highly distinct branches of the Uralic family, Mordvinic, Mari, and Permic, are located. This happened approximately 0 CE to 500 CE, prior to which the island of Madagascar lacked human inhabitants. These features, and the presence of certain common Semitic lexical items in all Ethio-Semitic languages referring to items that arrived in Africa from the Levant at a time after Semitic languages were known to have been spoken in the Levant, have lent weight to the Levantine proposal.  Genghis Khan, starting around 1206 CE, waged a series of military campaigns that, together with campaigns by his successors, stretched from present-day Poland in the west to Korea in the east and from Siberia in the north to the Gulf of Oman and Vietnam in the south, after which the empire ultimately collapsed with little long lasting linguistic impact outside the core Mongolian area.. There is no agreement, even between these two linguists, on a narrative that gave rise to these similarities. The only other place in the world with comparable linguistic diversity that has not been reduced to a small number of language families is Papua New Guinea, which also experienced many millennia of isolation from the rest of the world that ended only relatively recently. It is undisputed that fully developed languages were present throughout the Upper Paleolithic, and possibly into the deep Middle Paleolithic (see origin of language, behavioral modernity). Bengtson, John D. and. Also, the modern Inuit populations are genetically distinct from other indigenous populations of the Americas. George van Driem, "Language change, conjugational morphology and the Sino-Tibetan Urheimat,"(1993). 2,500 BCE, based upon its agricultural vocabulary, while noting that this "would not preclude the possibility that speakers of an earlier stage of Dravidian entered the subcontinent from western or central Asia, as has often been suggested.". More than 300 million people speak an Afroasiatic language. The early history of the Niger Delta, edited by E.J. Flight, C. 1988. Afroasiatic (alternatively Afro-Asiatic), also known as Hamito-Semitic, is a large language family, including about 375 living languages.. Afroasiatic languages are spoken predominantly in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel. Last edited by Agamemnon; 03-04-2016 at 12:27 AM . Herman Bell. Current Trends in Linguistics, 7. ed. Turchin, Peter; Peiros, Ilia; Gell-Mann, Murray.  This theory has, however, been rejected by some specialists in Uralic languages, and has in recent times also been criticised by other Dravidian linguists like Bhadriraju Krishnamurti.. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. There are several methods to determine the homeland of a given language family. Andronov puts the split between Tamil (a written Southern Dravidian language) and Telugu (a written Central Dravidian language) at 1,500 BCE to 1,000 BCE. Many scholars have addressed the question of the origins of the Tai–Kadai languages.. The entire Indo-European family itself is a language isolate: no further connections are known. Linguist Roger Blench has suggested that the Nilo-Saharan languages and the Niger–Congo languages may be branches of the same macro-language family. A genetic relationship between Uralic and the Indo-European languages has also been proposed (see Indo-Uralic languages). American Anthropologist 44.576–601. Map of Semitic languages and statistically inferred dispersals. 1989. This issue of classification is clouded by the nationalistic implications of such a classification for the political affiliations of the contested Kashmir region of South Asia and by the fact that the Dardic languages are spoken in an area that borders the region where each of the other Indo-Iranian language families is spoken. Response to the Basque Debate in Mother Tongue 1 (John D. Bengston), J.P. Mallory, "In Search of the Indo-Europeans" (1989). There were multiple languages spoken in Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula prior to Korea's unification, and there is dispute over which of those languages gave rise to modern Korean sometime in the first millennium CE, and what relationship that proto-language may have had to the proposed family of Altaic languages. The Proto-Indo-Iranians are widely identified with the bearers of the Andronovo horizon of the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BC, with the various languages of the Indo-Iranian language family starting to differentiate from Proto-Indo-Iranian around 2000 BCE. Collinder, Björn. Köln, 17:115-147. 1972. Anthony therefore narrows the meaning of Proto-Anatolian to "the language that was immediately ancestral to the three known daughter languages that entered Anatolia as Pre-Anatolian. Oceanic Linguistics 43. Semitic languages How did they started and were did they started arauca, Jan 5, 2012 #1. There are also competing theories on whether the Afro-Asiatic language family owes its expansion to the Neolithic revolution that originated in an area that includes the range of the Afro-Asiatic language, or was already widespread in the Upper Paleolithic era. The Turkic languages are now spoken in Turkey, Central Asia and Siberia. 4.5.  But, there has been active debate for many decades over the appropriate subclassifications of the languages in that language family, which is a key tool used in localizing a language's place of origin. 1964. Von den Hunnen zu den Türken – dunkle Vorgeschichte, in: Zentralasien. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age.  For example, while the evidence from genetics, archeology and historical climate change strongly points to a relatively small number of waves in a fairly short time period from Asia to the Americas, there continues to be intense controversy regarding the classification of the indigenous languages of the Americas, for which there is little direct evidence because all but a couple of those languages were not written in the pre-Columbian era, and in Australia and New Guinea, whose history of human migration and contact is also well documented, in which there were thousands of languages none of which were written prior to European contact.